South Africa is a multi-racial country composed of eleven language groups. The country's Constitution, which is considered one of the best in the world, protects the diversity of languages and cultures. It also stresses that everyone is equal before the law.
Let me introduce you to the people of South Africa -
South Africa: 17th Century
Before Europeans (via the Dutch East India Company) established a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope for ships traveling between Europe and India in April 1652, the most southern region of Africa was already the homeland of many distinct peoples.
The San and Khoi-Khoi People
In April 1652, Dutch settlers arrived in the south-west corner of southern Africa where the San and Khoi-Khoi were already settled. They named the settlement The Cape of Good Hope, today known as Cape Town. Here they met two distinct indigenous peoples - the San and the Khoi-Khoi.
The San were nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers. Tools used by them, which were found across the entire southern Africa, date back to 44,000 BC.
'San' means 'people different from ourselves'. The name was given to them by the Khoi-Khoi people. The Dutch called this group 'Bushmen' - a name that became highly offensive as racism spread among the descendants of European settlers.
The Khoi-Khoi (pronounced: coo-coo) - settled about 2000 years ago in the region of Cape Town. Although their physical appearance was similar to the San, they had a different culture and a more complex social structure. They were pastoralists, raising and herding sheep, goats and cattle. The Dutch called this group 'The Hottentots' - the only word (series of sounds) they could recognize in the language of the Khoi-Khoi, which is composed of a variety of click consonants. Today also the name 'Hottentots' is considered derogatory.
Khoisan - Historians merged the names 'San' and 'Khoi-Khoi' into Khoisan (coo-san). According to evolutionary geneticist Pontus Skoglund, the Khoisan was the largest population on Earth at some point. The oldest mitochondrial haplogroup (L0d) has been identified at its highest frequencies in this group - a distinction that makes them one of fourteen known extant "ancestral population clusters" from which all known modern humans descended.
The Khoisan adopted the new language, Afrikaans - a language that was originally called "Kitchen Dutch", as the Dutch spoken by the original settlers became larded with words spoken by Khoisan, Portuguese, Germans, French, and slaves from India (Malay), Angola, and Mozambique. Only in 1925, Afrikaans would be recognized as one of South Africa's official languages. Even today Afrikaans is the youngest language in the world.
Today only 82,000 Khoisans live in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia, most of them still the way they have lived before the arrival of Europeans.
Proto-Bantu is the common ancestral language of about 550 languages spoken in Africa. This language group originally developed in the region known today as the Republic of Cameroon.
The word bantu is rooted in the word ntu, which means people or humans. (Ntu is the sound that is made by the footsteps of a creature that walks with two legs.) The word ba refers to people.
NB: To use the word Bantu instead of African, or Bantus instead of Africans, is disrespectful. The term Bantu may only be used in its original context in reference to African languages. Dutch, British and eventually Afrikaners referred to all Africans as 'kaffirs' - a highly offensive name meaning 'heathens'. Today the use of offensive names are against the Law.
About 3000-4000 years ago groups of Proto-Bantu split off to begin what is hypothesized as the Bantu expansion. There were three groups.
The Nguni language group (2a) developed in Central/Eastern Africa in the region of the Great Lakes.
The Sotho-Tswana language group (2b) developed in Western Africa.
The Venda and Tsonga group (7a) developed in Zimbabwe and Botswana.
Writing and reading were introduced to these peoples in the nineteen century, initially by British missionaries.
During the 14th century, the first Xhosa tribes originated from the Nguni language group settled in southern Africa. The word 'xhosa' is a Khoisan word meaning 'angry/fierce people'. Their language - isiXhosa - contains many "click" sounds, indicating interaction with the Khoisan for quite a period of time. Like the Khoi-Khoi, the Xhosa were stock and cattle farmers.
Today 16% of SA's population is amaXhosa speaking IsiXhosa.
The amaZulu were originally a Nguni group formed by Zulu kaMalandela in ca.1709. They settled in the northern regions of today's province, KwaZulu-Natal. Between 1816 and 1828, King Shaka amalgamated many small Nguni tribes into the mighty nation known today as the amaZulu. Cultivating land, raising stock, metalwork and training in warfare were everyday activities in the kingdom of the Zulus.
Today 22.7% of SA's population is amaZulu speaking isiZulu.
Since ca.1750, a Nguni clan known as the emaSwati, also known as the bakaNgwane, settled south of the Limpopo River. The group was named after their king Mswati II who expanded his territory and unified the emaSwati between 1840 and 1868.
Although Swaziland achieved independence on September 6th, 1968, the majority of emaSwati live in South Africa to form a population of 2.5% siSwati-speaking people.
The Shangaan-Tsonga Group
The first Xitsonga speaking people were traders traveling in boats on the Limpopo River and its tributaries, bartering cloth and beads for ivory, copper and salt. While the majority Vatsonga (Xitsonga-speaking people) lived in Mozambique, some of the smaller tribes were conquered by Soshangane during the Mfecane (Difaqane)- the period between 1815 and 1840 when widespread chaos and warfare occurred among indigenous ethnic communities in southern Africa. The word Tsonga is a transition of the word Rhonga, meaning dawn/east.
The amaShangaan came into being during the Mfecane (Difaqane) when King Shaka of the Zulus sent Manukosi, later named Soshangane, to conquer the Vatsonga in southern Mozambique. Manukosi decided to form his own tribe - the amaShangaan - including Xichangana, XiTsonga, isiZulu, siSwati, as well as isiXhosa-speaking people. They settled south of the Limpopo River. The word Shangaan is a Tsonga transition of the Nguni word Changana, meaning to destroy/invade/attack.
Today 4.5% of South Africans speak Xitsonga or Xichangana.
It is not clear when the Vhavenda (or Vhangona) settled south of the Limpopo River, and if they were part of the Mapungubwe Kingdom, which existed between 1030 and 1290 AD. The word Venda means 'land', 'country' or 'pleasant place'.
Today 2.4% South Africans speak Tshivenda.
The Bapedi (Northern Sotho)
Nuclear groups of Sotho-Tswana speaking people co-existed in the north-eastern region of what would become South Africa. They identified themselves through their distinct totemic animals, such as tau (lion), kolobe (pig), kwena (crocodile), and noko (porcupine). By 1650 the group with the porcupine totem, the Maroteng, gained control over the region, hence the establishment of the Pedi paramountcy.
The Bapedi speak Sepedi and form 9.1% of South Africa's population.
The amaNdebele, a Nguni language group, was named after their legendary King Ndebele. During the first half of the 1600s their King Musi led them inland, away from the coast and the Zulu's, to settle in the region known today as the province of Limpopo. Internal conflict divided the tribe into two - the Northern and Southern Ndebele.
The Southern Ndebele settled in the region today known as the Mpumalanga Province. They speak isiNdebele and form 2.1% of South Africa's population.
The Northern Ndebele adopted the language and culture of their Sotho and Tswana neighbours.
The Basotho (Southern Sotho)
The Basotho were originally several clans of the Sotho-Tswana group that migrated from the western regions of Africa. Between 1818 and 1820 they were conquered and merged by Moshoeshoe I. Although Lesotho achieved independence in 1966, the majority of Basotho live and work in South Africa.
The language of the Basotho - Sesotho - was documented by the missioner Eugne Casalis between 1837 and 1855.
Today 7.6% of South Africans speak Sesotho.
Since about 1300 CE the Batswana lived as herders and farmers under tribal rule. By 1880 all major Batswana villages had a resident British missionary, hence the completion of Christianization in 1923. Botswana achieved independence in 1964. Today the majority Batswana live in the Northwest province of South Africa.
Setswana is the home language of 8% of South Africans.
As explained in the capsule about the Khoisan, Afrikaans was the new language that developed in the Cape of Good Hope. It evolved from Hollandic, also spelled Hollandish, which was, together with Brabatian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. Larded with words from other languages that were spoken in the Cape of Good Hope, Afrikaans was originally labelled 'Kitchen Dutch.' However, by the time the British took over in the beginning of the 1800's, everybody, including the Khoisan and Malay, spoke Afrikaans. Interesting is the fact that in 1815, Afrikaans, written with the Arabic alphabet, started to replace Malay as the language of instruction in Muslim schools. (Ref: Arabic Afrikaans.)
Afrikaans also became the home language of two new races that developed due to inter-racial relationships between whites and non-whites.
The Griqua People descended from inter relations between European men and Khoi-Khoi women. They speak a unique dialect of Afrikaans. Today, less than 100,000 Griquas live mainly in the Northern Cape Province.
The Cape Coloureds are a heterogeneous group with diverse ancestral links, including links in Xhosa, Malay, and in Africans from Madagascar and Angola. The Afrikaans dialect spoken by the Cape Coloureds is also unique. The majority of Cape-Coloureds live in the Western Cape Province.
Coloureds elsewhere in South Africa - As time went by, inter-racial relationships occurred between white and blacks all over South Africa, and between South Africans and immigrants from all over the world. Their distinct descendants are also known as Coloureds. (Keep in mind that inter-racial relationships and marriages were only prohibited during the Apartheids regime [1949-1985]). Some of the families in this group speak English.
Today, 13.5% South Africans, including Griquas and Coloureds, speak Afrikaans.
The first British settlers arrived in 1820. They were mainly poor and unemployed victims of the Napoleonic wars. At first they lived in an Anglo-Saxon establishment named Albany, where they kept their distinctive culture in the predominantly Xhosa and Afrikaans-speaking Cape. Eventually the lack of agricultural experience led many to establish other settlements like Grahamstown, East London and Port Elizabeth, where they reverted to their trades.
A group of the initial British settlers moved to the land of the Zulus where King Shaka allowed them to stay in exchange for access to firearm technology.
After the discovery of diamonds in 1867, and gold (in 1886), English also became predominant in Kimberley and Johannesburg.
Today 9.6% South Africans, including Indians, speak English.
South African Indians are largely descending from indentured laborers brought to South Africa by the British during late 19th-century to work on sugar plantations in the province known today as KwaZulu-Natal. Today, most Indians live in KwaZulu-Natal, especially in Durban and Pietermaritzburg. However, being masters in retail, they own shops, factories, and houses all over the country. Only a minority still speaks some Indian languages such as Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, and Odia.
Settlers from Asia
Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese
The first Chinese to settle in South Africa were prisoners exiled from Batavia by the Dutch in 1660. Although Chinese immigration was banned under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904, over sixty-three thousand contracted miners were imported from China to work the mines of the Witwatersrand between 1904 and 1910. They were repatriated after 1910 due to strong White opposition to their presence. Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, Chinese South Africans were deemed "Asiatic", then "Coloured", and finally "Chinese". Like all non-Europeans, they suffered under the Group Areas Act of 1950.
From the late 1970's onward, Taiwanese and Hong Kong Chinese migrating to South Africa were exempt from many apartheid laws and regulations as they were seen as investors and referred to as "honorary whites", while South Africans of Chinese descent continued to be classified as Coloureds or Asians. In 1984, all South African Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese finally obtained the same official rights as Europeans.
Since 1994 Chinese immigrate to South Africa in large numbers, increasing the Chinese population in SA to 400,000 in 2015. Most Chinese live in SA's economic hubs: Johannesburg, Durban, Port-Elizabeth, and Cape Town.
Immigrants from Africa
Legal as well as illegal immigration from African countries such as Nigeria, Angola, Somalia, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe, has multiplied since 1994. Immigrants from other countries in Africa are known as 'Foreign Nationals', shortened to 'Nationals'. In order to survive, these groups have to speak and understand English.
According to the 2016 community survey, 1,6-million foreign-born migrants represent 2.8% of South Africa's population.
A GOLD to go ATM debuts in Abu Dhabi's Emirates Palace Hotel
By Blake Ellis, staff reporterMay 28, 2010: 9:07 AM ET
NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- As economic fears drive gold prices to new highs, the creator of a gold-dispensing ATM is attracting attention around the globe.
Germany-based GOLD to go, which is currently churning out 50 gold machines a month to meet a recent jump in demand, launched its first ATM in Abu Dhabi's Emirates Palace Hotel earlier this month and opened its second in Buy Krugerrands Germany last week.
The golden ATM's next destinations are the Bergamo Airport in Milan, Italy, all major airports in Malaysia, one of Russia's biggest banks and an undetermined location in Turkey.
By making gold investing as easy as buying a candy bar from a vending machine, GOLD to go hopes to attract average buyers to the gold market.
"We are going to make gold public with these machines," said Thomas Geissler, CEO of Ex Oriente Lux AG, which owns GOLD to go. "The prices are so easy to control that we're going to de-mystify gold and make it easier for anyone to buy it."
GOLD to go's ATM looks like a vending machine and dispenses gold coins and bars weighing up to one ounce at prices updated every 10 minutes based on the real-time spot price of gold.
ATM-owners can choose from a variety of other gold items, such as gold Canadian maple leaf coins, South African Krugerrands, and even some custom designs. For example, the special edition gold medallion it engraved with the Palace Hotel's logo was created for the United Arab Emirate debut.
Earlier this month, gold prices hit an all time high of nearly $1,250 per ounce, and the precious metal has continued to climb as euro zone countries struggle with debt and investors worry that the region's problems could spread globally.
Until this uncertainty in the market eases, the demand for gold will only grow, said Carlos Sanchez, a precious metals analyst at CPM Group.
"[The ATM] is just a reflection of the demand from consumers and investors for exposure to gold," he said. "As long as prices continue to trend upward and investors remain concerned over economic and political conditions, I think we'll keep seeing strong demand for safe-haven assets like gold."
Next stop, Italy: Patrizio Locatelli, owner of SE 6, a small company in Italy that pays customers for gold, flew to GOLD to go's factory in Germany to check out the prototype when it was first unveiled.
Locatelli was having a hard time keeping up with the costs of rent and hiring employees, so when he came across the GOLD to go ATM online, he saw it as a golden ticket to an efficient way to expand his business.
"When you see exchange rates going up and down every day with the euro under so much pressure and stocks decreasing, this gold machine seemed like a very sound idea," he said. "In times like these you must think of somewhere else to put your money, and physical gold still has great appeal for everyone."
Locatelli is now launching a GOLD to go ATM in Milan's Bergamo Airport, which he says is one of Italy's fastest growing airports.
"[Bergamo] is a great place for it, because serious international business travelers will stop over here a few times a month at least," he said. "In general you tend to spend more when you're traveling and in a good mood, so you can now use a vending machine to get a present for someone or buy some bullions as an investment."
After a three-month testing period at Bergamo Airport, Locatelli said he hopes to introduce gold ATMs in every airport in Italy as well as major community centers and banks.
Not for serious investors? While the ATMs could be a hit with wealthy travelers, the idea is unlikely to catch on with serious investors, said Jeffrey Nichols, managing director at American Precious Metals Advisors.
"It's an interesting phenomenon, and I can see that wealthy and high-net-worth travelers might make impulse splurges on gold bars or coins, but I can't see a serious investor buying gold through a vending machine," he said.
Jon Nadler, senior analyst at Kitco Metals, agreed, saying that he would be surprised if investors bought into the new invention, because unlike the spot market, ATMs don't take your gold back when you want to sell it.
"Gold is a two-way market, so I would like to see that same machine buy back that gold and spit out cash," said Nadler. "A gold-dispensing ATM is great, but a real ATM also accepts deposits."
Nadler also said that GOLD to go's higher prices may be a deterrent, especially to investors who want to purchase large amounts.
GOLD to go says that, like any physical gold vendor, it must apply a margin to its items. While the spot price for one ounce of gold was about $1,214 in midday trading on Thursday, GOLD to go was selling a 1-ounce gold bar for 1,044.86 euros, or approximately $1,284.13.
But the ATM's popularity shows how much more available gold is becoming as demand picks up.
"It shows how attitudes toward gold are changing," said Nichols. "Gold is available in more forms and through distributors that make it more accessible for average people around the world to buy gold."
So you've finally decided to make your own candles. Where do you find the needed candle making supplies to do it?
The cheapest and best place to find candle making supplies is at your own home. You can put together scrap and used materials to make new candles. This is ideal for those who want to just try out candle making, or do the craft as a hobby.
You can utilize used candles and broken crayons to create your own candles in different colors. For the wick, you can use several pieces of cotton threads. You don't even have to buy the molds, as you can use empty milk cartons or tissue cartons. Also, instead of buying a double boiler, you can also make use of an improvised one using a tin can and any pot.
ARTS AND CRAFTS STORES
If you're making candles in bulk, especially when you are engaged in a candle making business, it is better to buy candle making supplies at your local arts and crafts store. Here, you will find more choices and brand new materials, such as wax and a variety of molds. These materials tend to be much easier to manipulate and prepare than scrap materials from home. Of course, buying from the store is more expensive, but it usually produces better results, especially for beginners. Also, you may be able to get the materials at wholesale prices if you buy them in bulk.
Another good thing about buying from arts and crafts stores is that many of them offer candle making kits. These kits provide you with all the necessary materials in order to create a certain number of candles with a variety of designs. The kits usually cost much less than if you were to buy the same amount of materials separately. Some kits even include a candle making book to go along with it. These kits are ideal for those who simply want to try out the craft of candle making, or those who want to give special candles as gifts.
If you're too busy to go to your local arts and crafts store, you can always check out the Internet. There are many online candle making supplies stores that you will find with just the click of a button. Some online stores even offer better deals than the ones you can find at your local store, because the cost of keeping up an online business is generally much less compared to its physical counterpart. Aside from that, you can also have the materials shipped right to your doorstep. Just make sure that you are buying from a legitimate online company before you give out your credit card number!
The great thing about the craft of candle making is that the supplies are so easy to find, and won't cost you a lot. Do try it!
Selling gold never has been easier--or riskier. With prices of the precious metal hitting records almost daily ($1,774 the ounce, as of today), and with fear and uncertainty continuing to roil the world's financial markets, gold buyers are eager to pay top dollar for any jewelry, coins or bars you care to part with.
Never have there been so many choices on where and how to sell. In Texas, you can pick up a nice steak for dinner and unload your tiara at the same time: Gold and Silver Buyers, the state's biggest buyer of precious metals, has its stores conveniently located inside or alongside supermarkets.
Since May, eBay has been offering a new feature on its site--a Bullion Center. Spokesperson Johnna Hoff says it was created "to be a one-stop destination" consolidating trade in all types of bullion--gold and silver coins and bars, primarily. The terms and conditions that apply to the sale of a gold bar are no more onerous those that apply to somebody who sells a toaster, a football jersey, or anything else on eBay: Small, casual sellers (non-professionals) pay eBay 9 percent of the price for which their bullion sells, when and if it does. There's no charge for listing. Small sellers, says Hoff, accounted for about one-third of bullion sold last week on eBay.
Whether you sell your gold online, at a local jeweler or through a pawn shop, it's possible, if you're not careful, to wind up with less than its full value. To avoid getting taken, keep these 7 points in mind:
Shop Around. No matter how or where you ultimately chose to sell, start locally. Take your gold to a reputable local jeweler or pawn shop and ask them to estimate its value. That way, you'll have at least have a base price in hand before you solicit online bids or other offers. You don't need to worry that you're abusing the good nature of your local businesses, says Dave Crume, past president of the National Pawnbrokers Association and vice president of Wichita, Kansas, pawnbroker A-OK Enterprises. They're in business to give estimates, and they'll give them for free. "Go to three or four stores," he advises, "and compare." To locate your nearest pawnbroker, try the National Pawnbrokers Association website.
Beware 'Rogue' Buyers. Crume cautions sellers about doing business with transient gold dealers whom he calls "rogue" buyers (also known as "hotel" or "pop-up" buyers). They blow into town, run ads promising high prices, and set up shop, say, in a hotel ballroom. After vacuuming up a city's worth of jewelry and coins, they disappear, sometimes leaving their victims un- or underpaid. In one test, a gold chain legitimately appraised at $250 was offered to a variety of hotel buyers. None offered more than $130. Before you sell gold--whether to a hotel buyer or to anybody else--check with the Better Business Bureau to see if there are complaints against the buyer.
Don't Mix Karats. Among the new places to sell your gold are Tupperware-like "gold parties" like those organized by Premier Gold Parties, where a group of friends or neighbors meet to socialize and sell their gold in a home setting. "While gold parties may be a convenient way to make some cash," warns Tucson's Better Business Bureau, "they may not provide you the best deal." Why not? Too many hands in the pot: the company that organized the party gets its cut, and so does the host. At some parties, all jewelry is weighed together, regardless of its karat value, and sellers are paid according to the lowest karat value. Don't accept those terms. Separate your jewelry in advance, by karat, and make sure you are paid more for higher-karat items.
Keep an Eye on the Scale. While the accuracy of scales used by jewelers and pawnshops is verified periodically by the department of weights and measures, the same may not be true for scales used by hotel or house party buyers. The Better Business Bureau advises sellers to pay close attention to how their gold is being weighed: Jewelers value gold not by the ordinary ounce (28 grams) but by the Troy (31.1 grams). While some buyers pay according to the gram, others use a system called pennyweight: A pennyweight is equivalent to 1.555 grams. A seller needs to make sure he's not being weighed by pennyweight and paid by the gram, since that would allow the buyer to get more gold for less money.
Read the Fine Print. Sell Gold HQ, a website that reviews and compares online gold buyers, advises sellers to compare terms and conditions carefully. "Even when consumers use a legitimate site that buys gold online," says the company in a statement, "it is easy to make a costly mistake by not reading the fine print. For example, some websites offer free shipping to send in gold, but very high shipping rates if the consumer declines the offer and asks for he gold to be returned." Check the buyer's policy, too, on reimbursement if they lose your gold. Many offer only limited liability.
Check Credentials. Ask a potential buyer to show you his credentials: If he's legitimate, he'll be licensed by the state to buy gold. He will also be required by law to ask you, the seller, to produce a driver's license, passport or some other form of government-issued identification. That requirement exists to frustrate money laundering and the sale of stolen property. If your buyer does not ask to see your ID, take your business elsewhere.
Is It Scrap--or History? Before you sell a gold item to be melted down for scrap, make sure it's not worth more in its present form. Brian Witherell, operations manager of Sacramento, Calif., antiques dealer Witherell's, gives this example: A seller brought him an antique item--a small gold watch fob made in the shape of a railroad spike. "It was a little thing," Witherell recalls, and would not have brought much as scrap. Upon inspection, the fob turned out to have been fashioned out of gold left over from making the famous full-sized golden spike used in 1869 to commemorate completion of the transcontinental railroad. At auction, it sold for $20,000.